Estonia to open virtual “embassy” in Luxembourg to protect digital data

Estonia, a country considered the most connected in the world, took another step in this direction and decided to open in Luxembourg in 2018 the first virtual “embassy” where it will house a copy of all its public data.

The server room will house, under strong security measures, important information from the Estonian Government, which will remain accessible even if the computer system of the Baltic country is out of order.

“Data security and cybersecurity are of crucial importance from the point of view of people’s trust and the functioning of services,” said Estonian Prime Minister Juri Ratas last month.

“This is also part of what is called daily digital hygiene in our increasingly connected societies,” he added in a statement issued after signing an agreement with his Luxembourg counterpart Xavier Bettel on the storage of Estonian data.

“It is the first data embassy in the world,” said Ratas, whose country of 1.3 million people is nicknamed E-stonia because of its taste for new technologies.

Estonia opted for high-speed technology and in that section it is in charge of the countries of the European Union, block that entered in 2004.

Estonians can access most of the public services through a special portal, and in 2005, internet voting was introduced in the elections.

Tallinn hosts a NATO cyber defense center, where experts from Western Europe and North America try to ensure the safety of the 29 members of the Atlantic Alliance.

– Cyberattack –

The country is aware of this issue. During a period of tension with Moscow in 2007, it suffered a powerful cyber attack attributed to Russian hackers, although the Kremlin always rejected any relation with that case.

The attack lasted two weeks and blocked many of its websites, including those of Parliament, banks, ministries, newspapers and television channels.

A year later, the cyber-defense center entered service in Tallinn.

In 2014, the former Soviet republic, began using international servers to save the state data, allying with the US company Microsoft to keep the official bulletin in the cloud.

The “embassy” of data in Luxembourg will keep, among other things, data related to taxes, companies, identity documents, pensions, legislation and census.

“The virtual embassy has the objective of guaranteeing the country’s digital continuity, the ability to activate systems when necessary and to consult data from versions stored abroad,” said Emilie Toomela, a spokeswoman for the Ministry of Economy and Communication.

“To achieve this, Estonia needs additional servers that must be completely controlled by Estonia, which means they must enjoy the same clauses as traditional embassies (for example extraterritoriality),” he said.

The Baltic country has a consulate in Luxembourg, but its ambassador in that country resides in Brussels.

German justice throws back data storage law

German regulator Bundesnetzagentur has had to push back the passage of a law requiring telecom operators to store calls and Internet browsing for its users.

It is considered to be contrary to the EU guidelines on privacy

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A court has ruled that the law – which was created as a measure of study for the scene of terrorist attacks in Europe – does not go forward for now. If it had been approved, the law would be in effect from this Saturday, July 1. Under its auspices, the Bundesnetzagentur could force operators and Internet providers to store user conversations and navigation data for 10 weeks.

That content could only be accessed under a court order, but data such as the length of calls and the origin of the servers would be subject to anti-terrorist study without permission. In addition, for four weeks, the geolocation data of mobile devices could be requested.

However a court has dismissed the law because it does not comply with EU guidelines in this section. In fact there are precedents. In 2014, a European court dismissed a similar law for violating human rights.

According to report in Mobile World Live, the main German operator, Deutsche Telekom, applauded the suspension. “There has to be legal support for an issue as committed as the violation of the right to privacy,” said an operator.

List of tax havens according to the Spanish legislation

According to Royal Decree 1080/91 of July 5

The  list of Spanish tax havens  is established by Royal Decree 1080/91 of July 5, which lists a total of 48 offshore jurisdictions. Based initially on the  OECD gray list , but incorporating some additional territories, the Spanish version has also undergone several changes since its initial publication. In fact, different countries have been withdrawn from it for having implemented transparency standards, although it is still much more extensive than the OECD list, which has now been reduced to its minimum expression. Below we present the original listing of RD 1080/91, but indicating in turn the changes that have occurred since its publication until January 2012.

List of tax havens for Spain

Principality of Andorra* Barbados Mariana Islands Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Netherlands Antilles* Bermuda Mauricio Lebanese Republic
Aruba * Cayman Islands Montserrat Republic of Liberia
Emirate of the State of Bahrain Cook Islands Republic of Nauru Principality of Liechtenstein
Sultanate of Brunei Republic of Dominica Solomon Islands Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Republic of Cyprus Pomegranate Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Macao
United Arab Emirates* Fiji St. lucia Principality of Monaco
Gibraltar Isas of Guernsey and Jersey Rep. Of Trinidad and Tobago * Sultanate of Oman
Hong Kong Jamaica* Turks and Caicos Islands Republic of Panama
Anguilla Republic of Malta * Republic of Vanuatu Republic of San Marino
Old and bearded Falkland Islands British Virgin Islands Republic of the Seychelles
The Bahamas Isle of Man US Virgin Islands Singapore Republic

* Territories no longer considered as tax havens in 2012 (according to manual tax companies 2010)

* Territories with agreements published in the BOE (expected to be withdrawn in the 2011 corporation tax manual)

* Territories with agreements in process (will be withdrawn when they are ratified)

This would be the  list of initial Spanish tax havens . However, within Royal Decree 1080/91 itself, article two establishes the following:

“Countries and territories […] which sign with Spain a tax information exchange agreement or an agreement to avoid double taxation with an exchange of information clause shall no longer be considered as tax havens at the time when said agreements or Agreements enter into force “.

We interpret that the entry into force of an agreement, as it applies to any other law, is from its publication in the Official State Gazette (BOE). Therefore, from the list we could eliminate those countries that already have an agreement signed and ratified in force with Spain.
According to the latest company tax manual published in January 2012 (corresponding to 2010), the following countries are  no longer considered to be included  in the list of Spanish tax havens (marked in yellow) : Andorra, Netherlands Antilles, Aruba, United Arab Emirates, Jamaica, Malta, Trinidad and Tobago.

In the meantime, there are already new countries that have signed agreements that provide for the exchange of information, either directly or in the framework of a double taxation agreement, and  could therefore already be considered as being removed  from the list of Spanish tax havens, Have already been published in the BOE. (Marked salmon): Bahamas, Barbados, Panama, Singapore and San Marino.

On the other hand, another series of offshore jurisdictions have also signed the corresponding agreements, but these have not been ratified or published in the BOE yet, which in our opinion should be considered still included in the list of Spanish tax havens (as of January 2012). Depending on the delay in the ratification process and / or publication in the BOE (territories marked in blue): Bermuda, Hong Kong, Cayman Islands, Cook Islands, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are expected to be removed from the list in the coming months or years. Grenadines and Saint Lucia.

The updated list of double taxation agreements and tax information exchange agreements can be consulted , as well as their status on the website of the Spanish Ministry of Economy:

Double taxation agreements with tax information exchange. Http://

Whether a country is considered a  tax haven  or not, it is relevant when applying certain anti-paradise measures. In general it affects the obligation to report specifically the operations with those territories in the declaration of income or corporation tax, at least those that exceed certain amounts per year. Certain limitations or conditions with respect to invoice discount may also apply, such as the obligation to prove that the services were actually provided or that the transactions were made at market prices. Tax havens are also generally applied to so-called ” international fiscal transparency “, By which the profits of a company are imputed directly to its owners or economic beneficiaries. However, this measure in general also affects other low taxation companies, regardless of whether they are included in the list of Spanish tax havens or not.

The Importance of Open Data for Data Journalism.

The use of the Open Data allows public administrations, non-governmental organizations and companies to offer information available to other entities for reuse. The opening of the data enables the creation of new products and services with added value.

It is undeniable that the irruption of the Internet has caused that a large volume of information generated daily can be available on the network. Analyzing and managing this large amount of data to display it in an understandable way to the user is the work of companies known as infomediary sector .

The Infomediary Sector in Spain is made up of companies that generate services for marketing to third parties based on public information.

Included within this sector are companies created explicitly for the purpose of marketing public information, or those that have a specific area or department dedicated to the creation of new products based on public data. Data Journalism is one of the areas that make up this sector.

According to a study of ONTSI ( National Observatory of Telecommunications and the Information Society ), the Infomediary Sector in Spain was formed in 2014 by more than 400 companies that generated services for marketing from Public Data Open .

Before reflecting on the importance of Open Data for Data Journalism we will analyze the report made by the Ministry of Industry to assess the importance of the Infomediary Sector in the country’s economy.

How important are Open Data in the Infomediary Sector?

The latest report of the ONTSI estimates that the re-use of public information generates an annual turnover of around 500 Million Euros .

If we also take into account information from private sources, the figure rises to 1.2 billion Euros. This represents a 6% growth in the sector’s overall activity, in relation to the previous edition.

The report estimates that there are 4,500 jobs linked to the infomediary activity of reusing public information. The number of companies oriented to the infomediary business amounts to 413. Of these 364 operate with Open Data from the public information of the institutions and administrations of the country.

The Open Data of the Public Sector allows to generate greater transparency when becoming an excellent means to communicate the public management carried out and for the accountability. This allows the Administration to be more transparent in the management of the public service and generate confidence in the population.

The opening of data links the citizen with the public entities, which favors the communication and allows to improve the public services.

Open Data enables the creation of a community of informed users, who can exchange ideas and opinions, face challenges and find solutions. In short, the opening of public information improves the processes of citizen participation.

Another aspect reflected in the report is that companies in the sector agree on the future of Smart Cities and the availability of Real Time Data ( RTOD ) as the great opportunities for growth and consolidation.


Assange denies receiving data from Russia or China

The founder of the Wikileaks leak platform, Julian Assange, denied that his organization received information from Russia or some other government after the CIA accused him of being a Kremlin-incited “intelligence service.”

“Our source is not a state of any kind: neither Russia nor China. We have said that repeatedly and publicly from the beginning,” asserted Assange in an interview on Monday evening (17.04.2017) by Mexican Carmen Aristegui on CNN .

Likewise, Assange ruled that hacking by the Russian government during the US elections served as a source of information for its platform. “WikiLeaks has published more than 600,000 documents about Russia and Syria, and WikiLeaks has also published aggressively about Russia and its allies,” he added.

Last week, the head of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Mike Pompeo, labeled Wikileaks as a “hostile intelligence service” with the United States, “often incited by state actors like Russia.”

The remarks came after Assange’s platform released a series of computer codes used by the CIA for its computer hacking.

During the interview, Assange referred to the possible relationship between Russia and the election campaign of the current US president, Donald Trump, and said they have no evidence or opinion about it. “If we get it, of course we will publish it,” he said.

Linked open data

Linked open data is a concept that systematically combines two different modes of data management presents on Internet :

  1. The linked data (according to the semantic web principles enacted by Tim Berners-Lee);
  2. The open data.

The data are related to each other through combinations “data-link-given” or “subject-predicate-object” (The predicate is what attributes something about, and refers to a relationship on a predefined set of individuals) this combination forms in “an RDF graph” what is called a ”  Triplet RDF  ” in the jargon of data managers (here meaning RDF resource Description Framework , the graph model used to formally describe web resources and metadata, In order to allow automatic processing of these descriptions and a certain interoperability ).

Linked open data is closely linked to the development of the semantic web. The latter is the basis of an idea by the inventor of the web, Tim Berners-Lee, who published an article in 2001 presenting the concept of semantic web. The idea presented is difficult to penetrate and to materialize, probably because of the underlying technical complexity. In 2006, Berners-Lee published a second article, entitled simply Linked Data. The concept then began to become popular and gained visibility.



  • DBpedia is one of the best known and large examples, which adopted the standards of the network linked open data  and those of the semantic Web , making it quickly interconnected to other web repositories such as GeoNames , MusicBrainz , CIA World Factbook , the Gutenberg project and Eurostat  . Access to data repositories is done with requests to the database via SPARQL . Because information is stored with the Resource Description Framework , you can also retrieve resource documents related to a concept directly via a URI.
  • Clean energy info portal  : For Denise Recheis (Austrian expert in knowledge management ), the Clean Energy info portal ( and the Energy Info wiki ( are designed as gateways to a ” Mine of information “ on the problems of renewable energies , energy efficiency and climate change . They are hosted respectively by REEEP (Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership) and NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), two organizations very committed to the idea of ​​open and linked data and which have incorporated the essential principles ”  .

List of underdeveloped countries – political situation

Underdeveloped countries

Knowing the HDI or Human Development Index allows us to know in which category the different countries of our world are included depending on the human development that they have. However, before focusing on the most underdeveloped countries, it is important that we understand the HDI concept.What is the HDI?

The HDI, the Human Development Index, is the measure used by agencies such as the United Nations to rate all countries on the planet as developed, developing  or underdeveloped. It is a measure based on the comparison between the different countries of  five fundamental variables : life expectancy , mortality rate , literacy, education and standard of living and, therefore, purchasing power .

The Human Development Index  is divided into four divisions, very high, high, medium and low, so all those countries whose HDI is low are considered as underdeveloped , that is, those that do not reach a minimum of both social and economic levels. They are usually associated with the so-called third world , at the extreme opposite of the first world and extreme poverty . Let us now look at a  list of underdeveloped countries .

Main characteristics of the Underdeveloped Countries

  • High unemployment.
  • Excessive corruption rate.
  • Great economic inequality among its inhabitants.
  • Little or no budget for science and technology.
  • Low rent per head.
  • Depletion of soils by the practice of monoculture.
  • High external debt.
  • Its technological development depends on other countries.
  • High infant mortality.
  • Great urban growth.
  • Dictators who monopolize power.

Which countries make up the list of underdeveloped countries?

Underdeveloped afghanistan countries

Below we show the list of underdeveloped countries grouped by continents and by having the lowest HDI. It is important that you keep in mind that, as I mentioned above, this index is calculated with the data provided by the government, so it is possible that some underdeveloped country is not included in the list.

We remind you that the famous HDI ranges from a 0.943 that currently boasts Norway , the country with the highest level of development , to 0.286 that has the Democratic Republic of Congo , which makes us think of the decompensation between wealth and poverty on this planet.



Africa is the continent where there are more underdeveloped countries. The African continent is still suffering famines, droughts, civil wars and the exploitation of capitalist and developed countries . It is not surprising that, in addition to having the largest number of underdeveloped countries, Africa also shelters countries with a lower per capita income (Ethiopia, Liberia, Somalia or Burundi, where the average monthly salary does not reach 20 euros), with a lower life expectancy (49.1 years on average) and higher infant mortality rates (75-100 deaths per 1,000 births). This is the list of underdeveloped countries in Africa:

  • Democratic Republic of Congo with HDI of 0.286
  • Niger with HDI of 0.295
  • Burundi with HDI of 0.316
  • Mozambique with HDI of 0.322
  • Chad with HDI of 0.328
  • Liberia with HDI of 0,329
  • Burkina Faso with HDI of 0.331
  • Leone Sierra Leone with HDI of 0.366
  • Central African Republic with HDI of 0.333
  • Guinea with HDI of 0.344



According to the Human Development Index, most countries in the Americas, including North America and South America, are above the poverty line, in general terms. South America is divided between developed countries like Argentina and Chile, and developing countries like Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador or Venezuela. These are the underdeveloped countries of America:

  • Haiti with HDI of 0.454

Asia and Oceania


Excluding Africa, Asia is the continent with the largest number of underdeveloped countries. All countries included in this list have serious infrastructure deficiencies, famine problems, no communications, high levels of illiteracy, high infant mortality rates, very low per capita incomes …


Even Afghanistan has the highest infant mortality rate in the world, dying more than 120 out of every 1,000 births. These are the underdeveloped countries of Asia and Oceania:

  • Afghanistan with HDI of 0.398
  • Nepal with HDI of 0.458
  • Yemen with HDI of 0.462
  • Papua New Guinea with HDI of 0.466
  • Burma with HDI of 0.483
  • East Timor with HDI of 0,495
  • Bangladesh with HDI of 0.500
  • Pakistan with HDI of 0.504


To consider…

Underdeveloped countries africa

As we can see, the so-called “western world” does not have underdeveloped countries. Neither in Europe nor in North America (if we except Haiti) are there countries that are cataloged in this way in the HDI. Does this mean that they live above the poverty line? No, it means that they have a minimum of development and infrastructures, enough to not be considered an underdeveloped country.

All of these countries with such low HDI are those where large epidemics, famines and malnutrition spread, and humanitarian crises that they are not able to cope with. Generally, they are immersed in wars between them or civilians, they suffer of continuous coups d’etat, with which they do not have governments in able to direct them , and although they call themselves democratic they live under continuous dictatorships. They do not have the capacity to manage their own resources, because they are not prepared for it or because they have been dispossessed by countries with greater economic capacity.

Thanks to certain groups of individuals, profit-making organizations, governments of other countries that are aware of their extreme poverty and desolation, some of them are entering a path of sustainable development , but much remains to be done. That is why we are going to see how we can talk to children to make them understand the situation these people are in, what their needs are, and what is needed and can be done to help them improve.

Importance of mentalizing children in education


Education is basic in order to improve the system in which we live and end poverty rates that should not exist in the world in which we live. That is why in Definitions, we try to talk about how we can mentalize children who not all have the same fate as them and what can we do at home to be a little more solidarity and learn to appreciate the resources we have .

  • Let me ask you questions : we often see different ads on TV showing some of the countries, the health and health problems in them, as well as the remedies they lack and the resources they do not Have. Children may feel bad seeing these pictures and they often ask parents questions. Do not close in band and talk to him. Let me ask you the questions that you consider necessary to better understand the situation that has been shown and try to make your explanations correspond with the age of the child.
  • Do not throw anything : once the child has understood that there are many people in need, it is important to make him see the importance of recycling and giving things we do not use instead of throwing them away. Clothing, toys or footwear, for example, have their own sites where they can be deposited to reach the most disadvantaged.
  • Reasonable Use of Resources : This is a good time to make children understand that the resources we have are not available on all sites and that they can end up like water, a much needed and not all good The places where this is needed. For this, it is essential that we teach children to make the correct use of the resources we have so that nothing is wasted. A good example is to turn off the water tap while we brush our teeth and do not use water. Another good example is with food. Many children die of malnutrition, so it is essential that we make the child see the importance of food.


However, we must emphasize that the school has an important role in teaching children the distribution of wealth in this world, as well as to make them see why there are sites with more resources and others with less. The point is that we can make our children understand that there are people who are not in the same situation as us and that, therefore, there are help and resources that should be directed to them to help them in all we can.


The technologies used in open data

The open data is subjected to a single constraint which is to be accessible by all types of machines to allow their processing. This implies that open data is interoperable . If the data does not comply with the standards of the Web to allow their interoperability, we will speak of data clamped because their reuse is less or almost nil.

This interoperability test was never really respected in the industry, until 2008 when the standard SPARQL became a recommendation of the W3C . This query language allows developers to test their applications directly from their web browsers on online open data and to develop their own program to analyze the data. It is thus possible to consume the data remotely without having to transform them or to move them. For example, governments in the UK and the US have begun to switch their data in the Web data open (in English, Linked Open Data or LOD) respecting standards of W3C and providing an access point SPARQL For developers.

Example of actually open data: find on a map schools closest to home with data from (from the UK government) that provides all school-related data on its territory.

A consequence of this political choice, to offer a true standard for public data such as Web data is described in the book “Linking Government Data”. This book describes how the Web data rose from some 40 million triples RDF within four data warehouses 2007-203 warehouses with more than 25 billion triples with 395 million connections at the end of 2010. More optimists speak of exponential data growth and announce Web 3.0 and even a potential point of singularity in the future. Nevertheless, this political choice opened up new avenues of scientific, economic and social research.